The Rising of “Alblish”
This paper researches the effect of English on the Albanian language, a language contact peculiarity until recently generally unexamined by Albanian and non-Albanian etymologists. This contact basically began as an aberrant one toward the start of the 20th 100 years, fundamentally by means of interpretations, the foundation of a few instructive organizations fully backed up by American and English affiliations and Albanian movement into English-talking nations. A few papers presented an impressive number of Anglicisms into Albanian during the primary portion of the 20th hundred years, a decent amount of which “made due” during the socialist long stretches of confinement. Those Anglicisms which advanced into the Albanian language until the 1990s and which have laid down a good foundation for themselves in the Albanian of today are primarily from the spaces of culture and sports. The fall of the socialist system uncovered the Albanian language to outer phonetic and social variables, achieving a surge of Anglicisms in various lexical fields other than culture and game, like business, data innovation, governmental issues, and medication. The momentum data set of Anglicisms in Albanian utilized with the end goal of this Short Exploration Report was gathered in the structure of the Happy (Worldwide Anglicism Data set Organization) project, http://gladnetwork.org. It incorporates 1,895 Anglicisms from papers and word references, all coordinated in a solitary document. The report initially gives foundation data in regards to the developing effect of English on the Albanian language during the three time spans under survey (mid 20th hundred years until 1960, 1960 to 1990, and 1990 to the current day). This is trailed by a record of the information and the strategies applied in the exploration. Hence, the discoveries and results are introduced and examined from a morphological, lexical, and linguistic viewpoint. The ultimate results are then utilized as a reason for the recognizable proof of Albanian language designs or examples the English borrowings have figured out how to enter as well as of the degree of transformation English borrowings have in Albanian.
The goals of this concise exploration report are to give proof of what English has had a meaning for Albanian from the very outset of the 20th 100 years, as well as to give an outline of the scientific categorization of Anglicisms in the Albanian language.
For this reason, the report centers around English loanwords in the Albanian language. The fundamental references used to decide the incorporation versus rejection of specific English borrowings/Anglicisms are the Etymological Word reference of the Albanian Language by Kolec Topalli (2017), the four Albanian language word references distributed by the Albanian Institute of Science (Cipo et al., 1954; Foundation of Study of Albania, 1980, 1984, 2006), Manfred Görlach’s Word reference of European Anglicisms (Görlach, 2001) and Gaetano Rando’s Dizionario degli Anglicismi nell’ Italiano Postunitario (Rando, 1987).
The circuitous contact Albanian has had with the English language as well as English and American culture in general traces all the way back to the start of the 20th 100 years, with various papers, interpretations from English as well as bilingual word references a distributed both inside and outside the Albanian area (D.J. Kamburi in 1915, K.A. Çekrezi in 1923, Nelo Dizdari in 1934, and so forth — referred to in Lloshi, 2011, p. 70). Among a few different elements that added to this backhanded language contact are the migration of numerous Albanians into English-talking nations like Canada, the US, Britain, or Australia and the foundation of a few affiliations or social/sports clubs.
The effect of English on the Albanian language was extensively diminished during the around 50-year-time of socialist disconnection and increased again solely after the 1990s. The 1960s are taken however the main fringe as it seemed to be during this decade that the alleged “language decontaminating” changes began to be laid out and carried out by the system.
A couple of concentrates on Anglicisms in the Albanian language have been directed in the twenty-first century up until this point, some of them as a component of texts on the lexicology of the Albanian language, as paper articles on borrowings in the Albanian language (like the works of Shehu, 2002; Shkurtaj, 2004; Lloshi, 2005, 2011; Memisha, 2011) or as the subject of Ph.D. projects. The two generally important and generally far reaching of the Ph.D. postulations led regarding the matter, as far as the time spans covered as well as the corpus size under assessment are that of Këçira (2005) and Kapo (2013). While the previous extricated around 100 Anglicisms from a corpus of 4 years of the “Laboremus” paper (distributed in English and Albanian by the Albanian Professional School, a specialized secondary school laid out in Tirana by the American Red Cross in 1921), the last option removed around 511 Anglicisms from 30 titles of various papers and magazines somewhere in the range of 1990 and 2012. The two works finish up with perceptions in regards to the phonetic, morphological and semantic parts of English borrowings in the Albanian language.
Lloshi is one of a handful of the Albanian etymologists and maybe the main who has underlined the way that a considerable lot of the new borrowings utilized in the Albanian language have a significantly longer history in this language; he has likewise tested explanations of a few different language specialists that the Albanian language contains far less Anglicisms than some other language or that the recurrence of their utilization is restricted (Lloshi, 2005, p. 32).
Albanian is one of the 16 European dialects remembered for Manfred Görlach’s Word reference of European Anglicisms (DEA) which “is focused on the advanced lexis imported after The Second Great War, with a cut-off date of 1995” (DEA: xvi). Görlach underlines the shortfall of concentration on Anglicisms in the Albanian language: “… Albanian had no writing worth focusing on” (Görlach, 2002, p. x). He just alludes to two articles by etymologists of the College of Pristina in Kosovo, I. Mehmeti and V. Nuhiu remembered for Rudolf Filipović’s The English Component in European Dialects (Filipović, 1982) as a reason for the Anglicisms utilized in the Albanian assortment spoken in Kosovo. Be that as it may, no examinations or exploration projects on the effect of English on the Albanian language in Albania were considered. In this way, the amount and nature of the Anglicisms addressing the Albanian language in the DEA is very restricted. Despite the way that Albania was not profoundly investigated as a region in this distribution, Anglicisms have had a significant spot in Albanian for quite a while.
Technique and Measures Utilized for the Assortment and Incorporation of Anglicisms for This Review
Around 90 paper titles from the three time frames under survey were counseled (the particular issues, with months and dates are refered to in the Reference segment) as well as the four Albanian Language Word references distributed by the Foundation of Study of Albania. These have been the wellspring of the 1,895 Anglicism lemmas gathered with the end goal of this review.
Every one of the articles distributed in the papers were looked for Anglicisms with the titles as the fundamental pointer for deciding if to peruse completely or essentially screen the separate article, contingent primarily upon the subject and the source from which the data was taken. The way that throughout the previous 10 years these papers have been accessible web-based in computerized design was of enormous assistance during the examination cycle. For examination of prior papers, they were genuinely recovered from the asset of the Albanian Public Library, counseled for the afternoon endless supply of work got back to the library staff around the same time. The English words and expressions distinguished in the paper articles were recorded in order in Word documents, along with the sentences they happened in, the specific date, source, and page. On the off chance that a word or expression showed up multiple times, it was qualified as a qualified section in the Anglicism lemma data set worked in a Succeed record. A similar methodology was followed for the Anglicism lemmas tracked down in the four Albanian language word references. The information was first in order gathered in a Word record and the passages were then consolidated in a Succeed document fully intent on gathering them for the Happy Anglicism data set